Assume that you build new form and publish it to the SharePoint Library. While Publishing the Form with some fields,you can choose fields in the form to be projected as columns in the SharePoint List/Library view. These columns are called InfoPath Projected Columns.
Assume that you add new Column to the existing Form and you want to project this newly created column. For this you can set the fields under Advanced Form Options–>Under Category choose Property Promotion and click on Add/Remove the Fields that need to be showed.
Republish the InfoPath Form